Tomorrow, 13th April, marks the 100th anniversary of the brutal suppression by British imperialism of a protest in colonial Punjab, India. To this day, no British government has ever offered a formal apology for this bloody crime.

Tomorrow, 13th April, marks the 100th anniversary of the brutal suppression by British imperialism of a protest in colonial Punjab, India. To this day, no British government has ever offered a formal apology for this bloody crime.

13th April 2019 marks the centenary of the Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) massacre in colonial Punjab, India. Around 1,000 unarmed victims were indiscriminately killed and over 1,500 others were injured in just ten bloody minutes by a company of the British Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer.

There was no escape for those who had gathered in the walled park of Jallianwala Bagh, as the British soldiers came in through the main exit point to suppress a protest in the park. At least 1,650 rounds of ammunition were fired, almost all of the stock being carried by the soldiers involved. Some in the park tried jumping into the well to avoid the gunfire, only to be crushed by others who attempted the same thing.

To this day the British government still refutes the figures of those killed and injured. There has been little acknowledgement of the incident by British authorities over the decades, with David Cameron describing it just as being ‘regrettable’ in 2013.

Fear of revolution

The context of this horrific event was an imminent fear of a revolutionary uprising in the Punjab. The fallout from World War One had significantly drained India’s resources and the Punjab had particularly suffered. Food grain prices had risen by 100% between 1917-1919, whilst soldiers from the region suffered a disproportionate amount of casualties during the war, given their status as a ‘martial race’.

Furthermore, the Bolshevik revolution in Russia had sent the British Colonial government into a state of paranoia, leading them to brutally suppress rights using the Rowlatt Act on 10 March 1919.

The Act effectively imposed martial law, allowing the colonial government to imprison any person it thought to be committing ‘terrorism’ for up to two years without trial. This indefinitely extended wartime laws passed in 1915, which stifled nationalistic sentiments within India because of its potential effects on the war effort. On top of detention without trial, press freedom was curtailed, allowing the police to act with complete impunity.

In the run up to the massacre there had been several small protests where the military had fired on and killed protestors. The violence that then ensued ended up being Dyer’s justification for his later heavy handed response.


AmritsarMassacre13th April 1919 happened to be the Punjabi spring festival of Baisakhi, which also has religious significance for the Sikh community. Hence, on the day many worshippers came to celebrate with friends and family in the park in addition to those protesting against the arrest of local revolutionaries. It was on this fateful day that Colonel Dyer marched 90 men through the narrow alley that led to the Bagh.

There was no prior notification. There was no imminent warning. There was only gunfire. In the later tribunal investigation, the Colonel made his intentions crystal clear: he didn’t want to disperse the crowd but to teach them a lesson. His only regrets were running out of ammunition and that the narrow lanes prevented the use of an armoured car.

The bloodshed that followed was so horrific that it caused shockwaves across India and went on to galvanise support for nationwide protests by the non-cooperation movement in the following year. For revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh and Udham Singh, this act of brutality greatly radicalised them to organise and overthrow colonialism in India.

To add insult to injury, Colonel Reginald Dyer came home to a hero’s welcome. Rudyard Kipling named him the “the man who saved India” and donated £50 to his £26,000 tribute awarded on his triumphant return home.

Inqalab Zindabad!

This massacre illustrated the raw brutality of British imperialism in India and showed the furthest extremes that the British were willing to go to to maintain Indian resources which were so valuable to them.

For this reason we do not forgive. But far more importantly: we must never forget.

Inqalab Zindabad! Long live the revolution!

Socialist Appeal are proud to publish this education guide to help focus your studies of Marxist theory and practice. Visit the various tabs below to find links to introductory articles, classic texts, videos and audio talks for different topics. Read More
Check out this selection of writings for an excellent introduction to many of the fundamentals of Marxist theory, providing a strong basis for those wishing to equip themselves with the ideas necessary in order to fight for socialism. Read More
Dialectical materialism is the philosophy or methodology of Marxism. We must seek to understand the laws of society and nature in order to change them. Read More
Historical materialism is the general theory of how and why society develops in the way it does. Each social system has its inherent laws of motion. If we want to overthrow capitalist society, we must understand how capitalism works. Read More
Marxist economics is the study of the laws of motion of capitalist society, allowing us to understand why capitalism perpetually goes into crisis, where inequality comes from, and what the alternative is. Read More
The Russian Revolution is the greatest event in world history for Marxists. Studying the events of 1917, and understanding why the Revolution degenerated into Stalinism, provides vital lessons for revolutionaries today. Read More
For Marxists, the state is not at all neutral. We must understand the state’s real basis and strip away its mysticism by treating it historically - taking in its origins, rise, and eventual fall. Read More
Anarchism is naturally attractive for those wanting to abolish capitalism. But only Marxist ideas can explain why bureaucracy and oppression exist - and how to overthrow the exploitative capitalist system. Read More
Marxists are irreconcilably opposed to the oppression of women and fight determinedly for liberation and against discrimination. We believe this will be achieved through the class struggle - to abolish the oppressive capitalist system. Read More
The madness of fascism expresses the historic crisis and dead-end of capitalism. But it could have been avoided if the working class had a united revolutionary leadership, prepared to take power. Read More
Nations have not always existed, nor will they always exist in the future. Marxists are internationalists, fighting for world socialist revolution as the only way forward for humanity and our planet. Read More
Wars represent the sharp extreme of capitalism’s impasse. Imperialism, Lenin said, was the "highest stage of capitalism". As long as the profit system exists, there will be wars over markets and spheres of influence. Read More
All written history, Marx stated, is the history of class struggle. Our task is to learn the lessons from history in order to prepare for the revolutionary events taking place today and in the future. Read More
Our aim is to spread the ideas of Marxism, in an organised fashion, amongst workers and youth. In order to do this, we must study the history and traditions of the working class. Read More
  • Educate Yourself
  • The Fundamentals of Marxism: suggested reading
  • Dialectical Materialism and Science
  • Historical Materialism
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  • Russia, Lenin, Trotsky and Stalinism
  • The State
  • Anarchism
  • Women's liberation
  • Fascism
  • The National Question
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